Yahoo – AFP, Pia Ohlin, 6 Oct 2015
Portraits of Nobel Physics Prize winners Takaaki Kajita (L) and Arthur B. McDonald
displayed on a screen during a press conference at the Swedish Academy
of Sciences in Stockholm, on October 6, 2015 (AFP Photo/Jonathan Nackstrand)
Stockholm (AFP) - Takaaki Kajita of Japan and Arthur McDonald of Canada were awarded the Nobel Physics Prize on Tuesday for determining that neutrinos have mass, a key piece of the puzzle in understanding the cosmos.
"The discovery has changed our understanding of the innermost workings of matter and can prove crucial to our view of the Universe," the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said.
The findings are so far-reaching that they challenge the so-called Standard Model, the conceptual model of fundamental particles and forces, it said.
The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is buried
2,000 metres below the surface in a mine in
Ontario, Canada and was filled with heavy
water to help detect neutrino particles
Next to particles of light called photons, they are the most abundant particles in the Universe.
Their existence was tentatively proposed in 1930, but was only proved in the 1950s, when nuclear reactors began to produce streams of the particles.
The prevailing theory was that neutrinos were massless, but experiments carried out separately in underground labs by teams led by Kajita in Japan and McDonald in Canada showed that this was not the case.
Neutrinos change identity
Many neutrinos blasted out from the Sun -- a type called electron neutrinos -- "oscillated" en route to become cousin particles called muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos, they found.
Since the 1960s, scientists had estimated the number of neutrinos created in the nuclear reactions that make the Sun shine.
But when this figure was compared against actual measurements on Earth, an anomaly emerged.
Up to two-thirds of the calculated tally of neutrinos coming from the Sun was missing, and no one knew where they were going.
In 1998, working at the Super-Kamiokande detector -- a 50,000-tonne tank of highly purified water built at the bottom of an old zinc mine in central Japan -- Kajita discovered that neutrinos seemed to change identities on their way from the Sun to Earth.
Portrait of Takaaki Kajita and an illustration describing his work are displayed
on a screen at the Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm, on October 6,
2015 (AFP Photo/Jonathan Nackstrand)
Meanwhile, in 1999, scientists led by McDonald at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, built deep under the ground in an old nickel mine in Ontario, Canada, were also studying neutrinos coming from the Sun. In 2001, his group also proved that neutrinos had a chameleon-like nature.
"It's ironic that in order to observe the Sun you have to go two kilometres underground. It's not what you would expect, that that's the best place to look into the core of the Sun, but low and behold it is," McDonald told the Nobel Foundation in an interview.
Under the quirky rules of quantum physics, the identity shift the scientists observed can only happen if neutrinos have mass.
"You can chalk up yet another success for quantum mechanics because without it we would not be able to make sense of the experimental results that have led to this prize," said Robert Brown, head of the American Institute of Physics.
The Nobel committee said the work threw down the gauntlet to theoretical physics.
Standard Model questioned
"The experiments have... revealed the first apparent crack in the Standard Model," the panel said.
Canada's Arthur B. McDonald was awarded the Nobel Physics Prize for helping
to determine that neutrinos have mass, according to the Royal Swedish
Academy of Sciences (AFP Photo/Jonathan Nackstrand)
"It has become obvious that the Standard Model cannot be the complete theory of how the fundamental constituents of the Universe function."
Intense activity is underway to understand more about the elusive particles.
"New discoveries about their deepest secrets are expected to change our current understanding of the history, structure and future fate of the Universe," the jury said.
Kajita and McDonald will share the prize sum of eight million Swedish kronor (around $950,000 or 855,000 euros).
McDonald, 72, told the Nobel Foundation that winning the prize was "a very daunting experience, needless to say," recalling the "eureka moment" when he made his discovery.
"Fortunately I have many colleagues as well who share this prize with me," he added.
Asked how he reacted to the news he had won, he said: "I gave my wife a hug!"
McDonald is a professor emeritus at Queen's University in Canada.
Kajita, 56, meanwhile said "it was a real surprise to me. It's kind of unbelievable."
Takaaki Kajita smiles after it was announced he had won the Nobel Physics
Prize, during a press conference at the University of Tokyo, on October 6,
2015 (AFP Photo/Yoshikazu Tsuno)
Asked whether he ever dreamed of winning the Nobel, he replied: "As really a dream maybe yes, but not a serious dream so far."
He is the director of the Institute for Cosmic Ray Research and a professor at the University of Tokyo.
This year's physics prize follows the 2002 award to Raymond Davis of the US and Masatoshi Koshiba of Japan, pioneers in the field of cosmic neutrinos.
Nobel week continues on Wednesday with the announcement of the winners of the Nobel Chemistry Prize.
The literature prize winner will be revealed on Thursday, and the peace prize laureate on Friday.
The economics prize wraps up this year's Nobel season on Monday.
'God particle' scientists win Nobel Physics Prize
"The Biggest Filter" - July 18-19, 2015 (Kryon Channelling by Lee Carroll) - (Text version)
"The Biggest Filter" - July 18-19, 2015 (Kryon Channelling by Lee Carroll) - (Text version)
“.. Physics - Sticking To The Known
Physicists are among the kinds of scientists who expect change through discovery, and who absolutely know that they are unaware of how everything works. It comes with the territory of being a physicist. Yet the mistakes they make in their bias are the same as the computer scientist. They take their truth from known absolute physics in 3D and then apply this truth to everything they don't know.
I point to the revelation and the discoveries of astronomer Vera Rubin. When she found out that stars that orbit the middle of your galaxy don't behave within the gravitational laws of Newton or the laws of planetary motion from Kepler, it was a major discovery. Your solar system moves around the sun in highly definable 3D laws of motion. The objects that are further away from the sun go slower. The ones closer to the sun go faster. However, her discovery showed that stars orbiting the galaxy had this reversed! The stars that are further away from the middle go faster. What she discovered was that all of the stars go the same speed in relationship to the middle, like they were pasted on a plate, all revolving together around the center. They do not follow the rules of the physics that you know.
So, what did the physicists and astronomers do with this major new information? Instead of seeing a brand new paradigm, they instead used Newton's laws and computed what would have to be "out there" to make this happen. Dark matter! It had to be mysterious, invisible matter that was creating this very strange and enormous new Newtonian attribute. Instead of looking at this and saying, "There is a new law of physics happening here that we don't yet know about," they kept it within the Newton box and renamed it, "Altered Newtonian Physics". That's funny! That's like a situation when you discovered the earth was round and called it the "Altered Flat-Earth Principle"!
Newton's name is still attached, but his 3D laws have nothing to do with anything Ruben discovered. Dark matter does not exist! It's a made-up energy to satisfy an old law that doesn't apply! Instead, there is a new law of physics that you haven't seen yet. It's a multidimensional law having to do with modified entanglement. Modified entangled objects are created because of what is in the middle of the galaxy. The immense push-pull twin energy at the middle of each galaxy is not simplistic like your sun is to your own solar system. It does not have Kepler rules, since it's not mass that's just orbiting naturally. Yet, you think it is, since it looks similar: The galaxy has stars circling it in space. Someday, you'll slap your heads in revelation of what you did with this, and you will change the rules.
Now to esoteric astronomy: Look what you've done with the idea that you came from the Pleiadians. There are some scientists laughing right now who smugly say that the mythology of the Pleiadians being your seed biology is simply not possible. It's not possible because of astronomical history, and what they now know about the constellation itself.
Pleiadian Connection - Mythology?
Let's talk about the Pleiadian system, the Seven Sisters. Let's talk about the truth of it, and then let's discuss what science says is the mythology of it. We will tell you what you don't see and don't comprehend, simply because of your existing knowledge.
You call this constellation the Seven Sisters [M45]. The physical facts are that there are hundreds of stars in this Pleiades group. Circling these stars is a nebula (dust particles and gas). This creates a wonderful blue tinge that you can see in the heavens on a clear night. With distance and atmospheric attributes against you, the naked eye can only perceive what appears to be seven stars (or clusters), hence the name Seven Sisters. However, there are actually nine when you use a telescope. Each of the nine have been identified with names, but again, there are actually hundreds of stars.
The Seven Sisters are approximately 440 light years away. From the viewpoint of astronomy and distances, that's close - very close! Now, here's what science says is wrong with your mythology about the Pleiadians: The constellation is way too young! The whole system of the Pleiades is far too young to have developed life. It's only approximately 100 million years old - a baby! The galaxy is four billion years old [according to your science] and your planet is at least a billion of that. Yet, the Pleiadians are only a tiny fraction of that, only 100 million.
So here is what science says: The mythology has most of the ancients of this planet claiming the Pleiadians as their seeds. However, this is impossible due to the age of the stars. The suppositions and logic are applied this way: What you saw on earth happens everywhere in the galaxy. That's incorrect, and quite humorous! Your bias is that life develops only a certain way, based upon the way it developed here. Not only is that incorrect in general, but the possibility has never even been broached that perhaps, just perhaps, the Pleiadian life as you think it exists was actually implanted there! How about that? Perhaps it didn't evolve from there at all! So to dismiss a possibility completely due to only the knowledge of what you have here may result in a totally illogical conclusion. Then there is the question, "How did those Pleiadians get so advanced so quickly?" [Wink]
These are just little vignettes of possibility, which I throw to you this evening to give you things to think about. The Pleiadians who are here are smiling, and they know you so well. You may be the new kids on the block because life just developed on your planet, but the Pleiadians had an entirely different scenario from what you had. To become an ascended planet, they needed certain kinds of pushes from certain other kinds of planets. They had their own seed biology! Dear ones, it's important to start thinking out of the box of your knowledge and open up to possibilities that are not what you've seen here. ….”
"FUTURE AND PHYSICS (#)" - May 16-17, 2014 (Kryon Channelling by Lee Carroll) - (#) New major Discoveries (This channel will become a historical channel in the future, prove that Kryon is a real communication from the Creative Source/God to Humanity - 'Our Family') - (Text version Physics)
1 To see and measure multi-dimensional/quantum physics, instrument (super-cooling quantum plasma lens)
2 Two more laws of multi-dimensional physics revealed: explanation of dark matter & acknowledgement of free energy (controlling mass)
3 God in the atom. God has - provable - part in physics. Intelligent/benevolent design. (Will bring religion and science together.)
4 Human Consciousness is an attribute of physics. (Pleiadians - Humans ancestors / Humans free choice only planet in the Milky Way Galaxy. Other galaxies have their own spiritual systems and physics)
5.Coherent DNA. Multidimensional DNA coherent between dimensions will give Enhanced DNA